MAPPING PATHWAYS: Towards a Holistic Model for the Planning, Design, Approval, and Construction of Inclusive and Resilient Linear Infrastructure — Opportunities for Transition in the ASEAN Region

Posted on 05 May 2023

This first-of-its-kind report proposes a holistic model for planning, designing and constructing inclusive and resilient linear infrastructure in the ASEAN region.

While linear infrastructure development is a vital component of economic and social development, it presents significant risks to the environment and to local communities. Linear infrastructure in Asia is usually designed to follow the shortest, least-cost route, without a holistic understanding of the risks, downstream costs, or the distribution of benefits. Efforts to promote environmentally sustainable linear infrastructure have emphasized low-carbon approaches that minimize environmental and social impacts but do not fully consider resilient and inclusive infrastructure, including the role that nature-based solutions can play in supporting resilience and maintaining ecosystem service provisions.  


This study proposes a holistic model for planning, designing, and constructing resilient and inclusive linear infrastructure in ASEAN. It calls for the establishment of domestic regulations that provide certainty for all stakeholders and that ensure coordination across a holistic model at all stages of the linear infrastructure project lifecycle across all ASEAN member states.


Ensuring that strong, inclusive, strategic planning underpins all linear infrastructure development in the ASEAN region will minimize environmental and social risks, reduce downstream costs, disaster risk potential, and community conflict, and maximize the positive social benefits of individual projects. 


This report is made possible by the generous support of the American people through the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) as part of USAID Mekong for the Future. The contents are the responsibility of WWF and do not necessarily reflect the views of USAID or the United States Government.